Alexander Calder, Vertical Foliage, 1941, sheet metal, wire, and paint, 53-1/2" x 66" (135.9 cm x 167.6 cm) © 2019 Calder Foundation / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York Alexander Calder Detailsb. 1898, Lawnton, Pennsylvaniad. 1976, New York, New YorkConnectCalder Foundation@calderfoundation Best known for his creation of the mobile, Alexander Calder is one of the most influential artists of the twentieth century.Calder was born in 1898, the second child of artist parents—his father was a sculptor and his mother a painter. In his mid-twenties, he moved to New York City, where he studied at the Art Students League and worked at the National Police Gazette, illustrating sporting events and the Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus. Shortly after his move to Paris in 1926, Calder created his Cirque Calder (1926–31), a complex and unique body of art. It wasn’t long before his performances of the Cirque captured the attention of the Parisian avant-garde.In 1931, a significant turning point in Calder’s artistic career occurred when he created his first kinetic nonobjective sculpture and gave form to an entirely new type of art. Some of the earliest of these objects moved by motors and were dubbed “mobiles” by Marcel Duchamp—in French, mobile refers to both “motion” and “motive.” Calder soon abandoned the mechanical aspects of these works and developed suspended mobiles that would undulate on their own with the air's currents. In response to Duchamp, Jean Arp named Calder's stationary objects “stabiles” as a means of differentiating them.Calder returned to live in the United States with his wife, Louisa, in 1933, purchasing a dilapidated farmhouse in the rural town of Roxbury, Connecticut. It was there that he made his first sculptures for the outdoors, installing large-scale standing mobiles among the rolling hills of his property. In 1943, James Johnson Sweeney and Duchamp organized a major retrospective exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art, New York, which catapulted Calder to the forefront of the New York art world and cemented his status as one of the premier American contemporary artists.In 1953, Calder and Louisa moved back to France, ultimately settling in the small town of Saché in the Indre-et-Loire. Calder shifted his focus to large-scale commissioned works, which would dominate his practice in the last decades of his life. These included such works as Spirale (1958) for the UNESCO headquarters in Paris and Flamingo (1973) for Chicago’s Federal Center Plaza. Calder died at the age of seventy-eight in 1976, a few weeks after his major retrospective, Calder’s Universe, opened at the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York. Alexander Calder, Object with Red Ball, 1931, Wood, sheet metal, rod, wire, and paint, 61-1/4" × 38-1/2" × 12-1/4" (155.6 cm × 97.8 cm × 31.1 cm) © 2019 Calder Foundation / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York Alexander Calder, John Graham, 1931, Wire, 10-1/2" × 8-1/2" × 10-1/2" (26.7 cm × 21.6 cm × 26.7 cm) © 2019 Calder Foundation / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York Alexander Calder, Constellation, 1943, wood, wire and paint, 33" × 36" × 14" (83.8 cm × 91.4 cm × 35.6 cm) © 2019 Calder Foundation / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York Alexander Calder, Snag, 1944, Bronze, 39" × 33" × 21-1/4" (99.1 cm × 83.8 cm × 54 cm) © 2019 Calder Foundation / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York Alexander Calder, Scarlet Digitals, 1945, sheet metal, wire and paint, 85" x 95" x 41" (215.9 cm x 241.3 cm x 104.1 cm) © 2019 Calder Foundation / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York Alexander Calder, Impartial Forms, 1946, oil on canvas, 48" x 60" (121.9 cm x 152.4 cm) © 2019 Calder Foundation / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York Alexander Calder, Sword Plant, 1947, sheet metal, wire and paint, 38-1/2 x 31 x 28-1/2" © 2019 Calder Foundation / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York Alexander Calder, Little Parasite, 1947, sheet metal, wire and paint, 20" x 53" x 13" (50.8 cm x 134.6 cm x 33 cm) © 2019 Calder Foundation / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York Alexander Calder, Snow Flurry, 1948, sheet metal, wire and paint, 40" x 82" (101.6 cm x 208.3 cm) © 2019 Calder Foundation / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York Alexander Calder, Aspen, 1948, painted sheet metal, rod and lead weights, 38" x 25" x 31" (96.5 cm x 63.5 cm x 78.7 cm) © 2019 Calder Foundation / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York Alexander Calder, Red Maze III, 1954, painted metal sheet and wire, 57" × 68-1/2" × 37" (144.8 cm × 174 cm × 94 cm) © 2019 Calder Foundation / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York Alexander Calder, Triple Gong, c. 1948, brass, sheet metal, wire and paint, 39" x 75" x 2-3/4" (99.1 cm x 190.5 cm x 7 cm) © 2019 Calder Foundation / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York Alexander Calder, Trois pics [intermediate maquette], 1967, sheet metal, bolts and paint, 96" x 63" x 66-1/2" (243.8 cm x 160 cm x 168.9 cm) © 2019 Calder Foundation / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York Exhibitions View All New York Calder Small Sphere and Heavy Sphere Past Sep 14–Oct 26, 2019 New York The World According to... Past Feb 13–Mar 23, 2019 New York Calder / Miró Constellations Past Apr 20–Jun 20, 2017 Journal View All Exhibitions A Tour Through Calder: Small Sphere and Heavy Sphere Oct 04, 2019 Exhibitions Daily Activations: Alexander Calder's Mobiles Sep 24, 2019 Press Architectural Digest Takes You Inside "Calder: Small Sphere and Heavy Sphere" Sep 10, 2019 One-Artist Exhibitions Group Exhibitions Public Collections Books and Catalogues Close Alexander CalderOne-Artist Exhibitions Alexander Calder One-Artist Exhibitions.pdf For a comprehensive list of exhibitions and publications, see www.calder.orgDatesBorn 1898, Lawnton, PennsylvaniaDied 1976, New York2019Calder: Small Sphere and Heavy Sphere, Pace Gallery, 540 West 25th Street, New York, September 14–October 26, 2019.2018Alexander Calder: Theater of Encounters, Fundación Proa, Buenos Aires, September 8, 2018–February 24, 2019.Alexander Calder: Radical Inventor, Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, September 21, 2018–February 24, 2019.2017Alexander Calder: Forgeron de Géantes Libellules, Musée Soulages, Rodez, France, June 24–October 29, 2017.Calder: Hypermobility, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, June 9–October 23, 2017.2016Alexander Calder, Pace Hong Kong, 15C Entertainment Building, 30 Queen's Road Central, May 28–July 16, 2016.Calder: Constellations, Pace Gallery, 32 East 57th Street, New York, April 20–June 20, 2017.2015Alexander Calder: Performing Sculpture, Tate Modern, London, November 11, 2015–April 3, 2016.Alexander Calder: Retrospective, Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts, Moscow, June 8–August 30, 2015.Calder: Discipline of the Dance, Museo Jumex, Mexico City, March 22–June 28, 2015.2014Alexander Calder at the Rijksmuseum, Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, June 21–October 5, 2014.Alexander Calder: The Art of Invention, Pace Menlo Park, California, April 17–May 10, 2014.2013Calder and Abstraction: From Avant-Garde to Iconic, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, November 24, 2013–July 27, 2014.Alexander Calder: Avant-Garde in Motion, Kunstsammlung Nordrhein Westfalen, Düsseldorf, September 7, 2013–January 12, 2014.Calder, Leeum, Samsung Museum of Art, Seoul, July 18–October 20, 2013.Calder at the Castle, Sudeley Castle, Winchcombe, Gloucestershire, June 22–October 22, 2013.Calder After the War, Pace London, 6 Burlington Gardens, April 19–June 7, 2013.2012Alexander Calder: De grote ontdekking, Gemeentemuseum, The Hague, The Netherlands, February 11–May 28, 2012.2011Calder 1941, The Pace Gallery, 32 East 57th Street, New York, October 21–December 23, 2011.Calder’s Portraits: A New Language, National Portrait Gallery, Washington, D.C., March 11–August 14, 2011.2009Calder: Sculptor of Air, Palazzo delle Esposizioni, Rome, October 23, 2009–February 14, 2010.Alexander Calder: A Balancing Act, Seattle Art Museum, Washington, October 15, 2009–April 11, 2010.2008Alexander Calder: The Paris Years 1926–1933, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, October 16, 2008–February 15, 2009.Alexandre Calder en Touraine, Château de Tours, France, June 6–October 19, 2008.Calder Jewelry, Norton Museum of Art, West Palm Beach, Florida, February 23–June 15, 2008.2006Alexander Calder: Gouaches 1942–1976, PaceWildenstein, 32 East 57th Street, New York, September 22–October 21, 2006.Calder no Brasil, Pinacoteca de Estado de São Paolo, Brazil, August 15–October 15, 2006.Alexander Calder: From Model to Monument, PaceWildenstein, 545 West 22nd Street, New York, February 3–March 4, 2006.2005The Surreal Calder, The Menil Collection, Houston, September 30, 2005–January 8, 2006.2003Calder: Gravedad y la Gracia, Fundación del Museo Guggenheim Bilbao, March 18–October 7, 2003.2002Calder ’76: The Cutouts, PaceWildenstein, 32 East 57th Street, New York, February 14–March 16, 2002.2001Grand Intuitions: Calder’s Monumental Sculpture, Storm King Art Center, Mountainville, New York, May 21, 2001–November 15, 2003.2000Alexander Calder: Motion and Color, Iwaki City Art Museum, Japan, November 3–December 17, 2000.Calder in Connecticut, Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art, Hartford, April 28–August 6, 2000.1998Alexander Calder: 1898–1976, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., March 29–July 12, 1998.1997Calder, Fundació Joan Miró, Barcelona, November 20, 1997–February 15, 1998.Flying Colors: Innovation and Artistry of Alexander Calder, San Jose Museum of Art, California, November 15, 1997–February 16, 1998.1995Alexander Calder: Retrospective, Louisiana Museum of Modern Art, Humlebaek, Denmark, October 6, 1995–January 21, 1996. (Catalogues)Alexander Calder: the 50’s, PaceWildenstein, Los Angeles, November 9–December 29, 1995.1993Calder: Mobiles, stabiles, gouaches, bijoux..., Musée Picasso, Château Grimaldi, Antibes, France, July 2–September 27, 1993.1991Celebrating Calder, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, November 13, 1991–January 2, 1992.1989Calder: Stabiles, The Pace Gallery, 32 East 57th Street, New York, May 5–June 17, 1989.Calder Intime, Musée des Arts Décoratifs, Paris, February 15–May 21, 1989.1987Alexander Calder: Bronzes, The Pace Gallery, 32 East 57th Street, New York, March 20–April 18, 1987.1986Alexander Calder: An American Invention, Sheldon Memorial Art Gallery, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, September 13–November 16, 1986.1985Calder's Calders, The Pace Gallery, 32 East 57th Street, New York, May 3–June 8, 1985.1983Calder: Mostra retrospettiva, Palazzo a Vela, Turin, July 2–September 25, 1983.1976Calder’s Universe, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, October 14, 1976–February 6, 1977.1975Calder, Haus der Kunst, Munich, May 10–July 13, 1975. Traveled to: Kunsthaus Zürich, August 23–November 2, 1975.1974Alexander Calder: A Retrospective Exhibition—Works from 1925 to 1974, Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, October 26–December 8, 1974.1973Alexander Calder: Retrospektive, Galerie Maeght, Zurich, May 24–July 1973.1972Calder's Circus, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, April 20–June 11, 1972.1971Calder, The Pace Gallery, Columbus, Ohio, October 10–November 13, 1971.1969A Salute to Alexander Calder, The Museum of Modern Art, New York, December 22, 1969–February 15, 1970.Calder, Fondation Maeght, Saint-Paul-de-Vence, France, April 2–May 31, 1969.1967Calder: 19 Gifts from the Artist, The Museum of Modern Art, New York, February 1–April 5, 1967.1964Alexander Calder: A Retrospective Exhibition, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, November 6, 1964–January 31, 1965.1962Alexander Calder: Sculpture-Mobiles, Arts Council of Great Britain, Tate Gallery, London, July 4–August 12, 1962.1959Alexander Calder, Stabilen, Mobilen, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, May 15–June 22, 1959.1957Alexander Calder, Kunsthalle Basel, May 22–June 23, 1957.1956Calder, Perls Galleries, New York, February 6–March 10, 1956.1955Exposición Calder, Museo de Bellas Artes, Caracas, September 11–25, 1955.1953II Bienal de Museu de Arte Moderna de Sao Paulo, Museu de Arte Moderna, Sao Paulo, December 15, 1953–February 28, 1954.Alexander Calder Mobiles, Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, March 22–April 19, 1953.1952Alexander Calder: Gongs and Towers, Curt Valentin Gallery, New York, January 15–February10, 1952.1950Calder, New Gallery, Charles Hayden Memorial Library, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, December 5, 1950–January 14, 1951.Calder: Mobiles and Stabiles, Galerie Maeght, Paris, June 30–July 27, 1950.1948Alexander Calder, Museu de Arte Moderna do Rio de Janeiro, Ministerio da Educaçao e Saude, September 1948.1946Alexander Calder: Mobiles, Stabiles, Constellations, Galerie Louis Carré, Paris, October 25–November 16, 1946.1944Recent Work by Alexander Calder, Buchholz Gallery/Curt Valentin, New York, November 28–December 23, 1944. (original drawings and new bronzes)1943Alexander Calder: Sculptures and Constructions, The Museum of Modern Art, New York, September 29, 1943–November 28, 1943 (extended through January 16, 1944).17 Mobiles by Alexander Calder, Addison Gallery of American Art, Andover, Massachusetts, May 28–July 6, 1943.1941Mobiles by Alexander Calder, Stabiles and Jewelry, San Francisco Museum of Art, November 4–19, 1941.1940Calder Jewelry, Marian Willard Gallery, New York, December 3–25, 1940.1938Calder Mobiles, George Walter Vincent Smith Art Gallery, Springfield, Massachusetts, November 8–27, 1938.1937Calder: Mobiles and Stabiles, The Mayor Gallery, London, December 1–24, 1937.1935Mobiles by Alexander Calder, The Renaissance Society, University of Chicago, January14–31, 1935.1934Mobiles by Alexander Calder, Pierre Matisse Gallery, New York, April 6–28, 1934.1932Calder: Mobiles/Abstract Sculptures, Julien Levy Gallery, New York, May 12–June 11, 1932.Calder: ses mobiles, Galerie Vignon, Paris, February 12–29, 1932.1931Alexandre Calder: Volumes–Vecteurs–Densités / Desseins–Portraits, Galerie Percier, Paris, April 27–May 9, 1931.1929Alexander Calder: Paintings, Wood Sculpture, Toys, Wire Sculpture, Jewelry, Textiles, Fifty-Sixth Street Galleries, New York, December 2–14, 1929.Alexander Calder: Skulpturen aus Holz und aus Draht, Galerie Neumann-Nierendorf, Berlin, April 1–15, 1929.Sculptures bois et fil de fer de Alexander Calder, Galerie Billiet-Pierre Vorms, Paris, January 25–February 7, 1929.1928Wire Sculpture by Alexander Calder, Weyhe Gallery, New York, February 20–March 3, 1928.1927Alexander Calder, Galleries of Jacques Seligmann, Paris, August 1927. Alexander CalderGroup Exhibitions Alexander Calder Group Exhibitions.pdf For a comprehensive list of exhibitions and publications, see www.calder.org2019Calder-Picasso, Musée Picasso, Paris, February 19–August 25, 2019.The World According to, Pace Gallery, 32 East 57th Street, New York, February 13–March 23, 2019.2016Calder and Brazilian Art, Itaú Cultural, São Paulo, August 31–October 23, 2016.Alexander Calder & Fischli / Weiss, Fondation Beyeler, Riehen/Basel, May 29–September 4, 2016.The Calder Prize 2005–2015, Pace London, 6 Burlington Gardens, February 4–March 5, 2016.2015Marvelous Objects: Surrealist Sculpture from Paris to New York, Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., October 29, 2015–February 15, 2016.Calder Lightness; Richard Tuttle Wire Pieces; Fred Sandback 64 Three–Part Pieces, Pulitzer Arts Foundation, St. Louis, Missouri, May 1–September 12, 2015.Eureka, Pace Gallery, 508 West 25th Street, New York, May 2–June 27 (extended through August 28), 2015.2014Carte Blanche, Pace at Chesa Büsin, Zuoz, Switzerland, February 20–March 30, 2014.2013Le Surréalisme et l'objet, Centre Pompidou, Paris, October 30, 2013–March 3, 2014.2012Mythology, The Pace Gallery, 32 East 57th Street, New York, February 22–March 24 (extended through April 14), 2012.2011Burning, Bright: A Short History of the Light Bulb, The Pace Gallery, 545 West 22nd Street, New York, October 28–November 26, 2011.201050 Years at Pace, The Pace Gallery, 32 East 57th Street, and 534 West 25th Street, New York, September 17–October 23, 2010.2007Light Time and Three Dimensions, PaceWildenstein, 534 West 25th Street, New York, June 28–August 24, 2007.2004Calder/Miró, Fondation Beyeler, Basel, May 2–September 5, 2004.2000Earthly Forms: The Biomorphic Sculpture of Arp, Noguchi and Calder, PaceWildenstein, 32 East 57th Street, New York, February 18–March 18, 2000.1993Picasso and the Age of Iron, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, March 19–May 16, 1993.1975Five Americans: Calder, Cornell, Nevelson, Noguchi, David Smith: Masters of Twentieth-Century Sculpture, The Pace Gallery, 32 East 57th Street, New York, January 11–February 22, 1975.1972Art for McGovern, Sidney Janis Gallery and Pace Gallery, New York, September 20–September 21, 1972.1971Beyeler at Pace, Pace Gallery, New York, November 6–31 December 31, 1971.1968The Machine as Seen at the End of the Mechanical Age, The Museum of Modern Art, New York, November 25, 1968–February 9, 1969.1953Alexander Calder: Mobiles/Naum Gabo: Kinetic Constructions and Constructions in Space, Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford, Connecticut, October 16–November 28, 1953.1952XXVI Biennale di Venezia, June 14–October 19, 1952.1949Third International Exhibition of Sculpture, Philadelphia Museum of Art in collaboration with Fairmount Park Art Assocation, May 15–September 11, 1949.1947Alexander Calder/Fernand Léger, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, July 19–August 24, 1947.1942First Papers of Surrealism, Coordinating Council of French Relief Societies, Whitelaw Reid Mansion, New York, October 14–November 7, 1942.1936Fantastic Art, Dada and Surrealism, The Museum of Modern Art, New York, December 7, 1936–January 17, 1937.Cubism and Abstract Art, The Museum of Modern Art, New York, March 2–April 19, 1936. Alexander CalderPublic Collections Alexander Calder Public Collections.pdf For a comprehensive list of exhibitions and publications, see www.calder.orgThe Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IllinoisHirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Washington, D.C.Leeum, Samsung Museum of Art, SeoulModerna Museet, Stockholm, SwedenMusée national d`art moderne, Centre Pompidou, Paris, FranceMuseum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, IllinoisThe Museum of Modern Art, New York, New YorkNational Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.Peggy Guggenheim Collection, VenicePhiladelphia Museum of Art, PhiladelphiaSan Francisco Museum of Modern Art, CaliforniaSmithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, D.C.Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, New YorkUniversity of California, Berkeley Art Museum & Pacific Film Archive, Berkeley, CaliforniaWhitney Museum of American Art, New York, New YorkYale University Art Gallery, New Haven, Connecticut Alexander CalderBooks and Catalogues Alexander Calder Books.pdf For a comprehensive list of exhibitions and publications, see www.calder.org2017Perl, Jed. Calder: The Conquest of Time, The Early Years, 1898–1940. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2017.2015“Calder in France.” Cahiers D’Art: Calder in France. Edited by Alexander S. C. Rower. 39th year special edition, no.1 (2015).2013Calder by Matter. Edited by Alexander S. C. Rower. Paris: Editions Cahiers d'Art SARL, 2013.2009Pierre, Arnauld. Calder: Mouvement et Réalité. Paris: Éditions Hazan, 2009.2008Ugo Mulas/Alexander Calder. Milan: Officina Libraria, 2008: illustrated.2007Rower, Alexander S.C. and Holton Rower, eds. Calder Jewelry. Texts by Mark Rosenthal and Jane Adlin. New York: Calder Foundation, 2007.2003Calder: Storm King Art Center. Text by H. Peter Stern, David R. Collens, Alexander S.C. Rower. Mountainville, New York: Storm King Art Center, 2003.1998Calder at Home: The Joyous Environment of Alexander Calder. Text by Perdo E. Guerrero. New York: Stewart, Tabori and Chang, 1998.Rower, Alexander S.C. Calder Sculpture. New York: Universe Publishing, 1998.1996Carandente, Giovanni. Teodelapio: Alexander Calder. Milan: Edizioni Charta, 1996.Pierre, Arnauld. Calder: La sculpture en mouvement. Paris: Découvertes Gallimard/Paris-Musées, 1996. Monograph1977Hayes, Margaret Calder. Three Alexander Calders: A Family Memoir. Middlebury, Vermont: Paul S. Eriksson, 1977.1975Calder à Saché. Text by Maurice Bruzeau. Paris: Éditions Cercle d’art, 1975.1971Calder. Photographs and design by Ugo Mulas, introduction by H. Harvard Arnason, with comments by Alexander Calder. New York: A Studio Book, The Viking Press, 1971.Calder, Alexander, James Johnson Sweeney, and Daniel Lelong. Calder, l'artiste et l'oeuvre. Archives Maeght, no. 1. Paris: Maeght Editeur, 1971.1966Arnason, H. Harvard, and Pedro E. Guerrero. Calder. New York: D. Van Nostrand, 1966.Calder, Alexander. Calder: An Autobiography with Pictures. Edited by Jean Davidson. New York: Pantheon Books, 1966.1951Sweeney, James Johnson. Alexander Calder. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1951.